The French Gyration: Effort and Essence
Updated on February 26, 2019
James A Watkins
James A. Watkins is an enterpriser, instrumentalist, and a author with 3 non-fiction books and hundreds of mag articles take by millions.
The previous 1700’s ground Paris at the mall of outside polish and France the nearly predominant might in the man. The French Rotation plunged all of Europe into a crisis. The revolutionaries sought-after to essentially metamorphose France. They promised the mass trust and change—liberation from faith, grandeur, and monarchies. What they delivered was despotism, threat, and mob formula. 300,000 souls were murdered.
It is a atrocious mistake to nowadays the French and American revolutions as siblings. For one grounds, what happened in the two countries happened because of men alive by whole antonym booze.
For another, the countersign ‘Gyration’ way a over derangement of a organization of governing on with the societal, economical, and ethnic foundations of a land. Hence, thither was no ‘American Gyration’ in 1776, but kinda an ‘American War of Independency.’
To see what gyration looks care we mustiness anticipate France. The French Nirvana had confident many mass that faith and cause were unfitting because they gain inverse directions. Whereas, English and Scottish Nirvana thinkers saw ground and faith pull in tackle toward the like ends; this was the introduction doctrine of America.
No wiseness radiated crosswise the Atlantic from the makers of the American Foundation Documents to those in guardianship in France later 1789, whose ism can be scoop summed up in the resolve of Diderot:
«Man leave not be justify until the finis rex has been smothered with the viscera of the death priest.»
«The Gloat of the Guillotine in Sin» by Nicolas Antoine Taunay (1795)
«The Tennis Tribunal Curse» by Jacques-Louis David
The French Gyration
By 1789, France was belly-up and politically paralytic. All of Europe buzzed with peach of rotation. Peradventure it came low to France because its rulers were more dog-tired and scorned than others. Misfortunate old left-handed Tycoon George III of England was announced a despot by the Americans, but he paled in compare with the monarchs on the Celibate. Americans demanded no tax without delegacy when no European commonwealth fifty-fifty had a Fantan.
The Ancien Government was qualification build in many slipway. It abolished agony and ripe towards dislodge endeavour. Power Louis XVI was attached to regenerate, and many aspects of governance saw brobdingnagian improvements during his rule. Unluckily, French nobles plugged many of his reforms, and he was the dupe of a cyclic farming impression in 1787-1789 that led to nutrient shortages.
Antoine Barnave (1763-1791), authored the Jacobin Pronunciamento in 1788. In January of 1789, Abbe Sieyes—a reverend who coined the condition ‘sociology’— followed that up with the tract What is the Commons? The ‘Commons’ refers to the folks of France. Abbe Sieyes wrote that they were «Everything. And what has it get until the nowadays clock? Cypher. And what does it exact? To get something.»
In April of 1789, the 576 members of the Commons sign the «Tennis Tribunal Expletive,» a stately resolve against the French Monarchy. That like month, the fruits of an exceptionally coarse wintertime came to gestate. The glower classes of Paris lacked study, and they lacked nutrient. The insolvent governance was in no office to assuage their miserable. Furious crowds ruined respective bureaucratic buildings. In answer, French soldiers killed 300 citizens in an assay to assert ordering.
In June of 1789, the Commons stated itself the lonesome Subject Forum. Many nobles and clergymen were initially on their side—not realizing their ultimate destiny. Bedlam ensued. Paris exploded—it became a infamous playground for intimate saturnalia with subsist sex shows enhancing political meetings.
By July, Paris was missed to the power afterward revolutionaries raided an arsenal, confiscated 30,000 muskets, and stormed the regal fortress—the Bastille.
The successful storming of the Bastille triggered an bacchanalia of attacks on 40,000 jails in France, release most all criminals in the commonwealth to produce havoc. Castles and Abbeys were burned-out to the land. Highways were now ruled by bandits. Peasants attached atrocities round the commonwealth, assaultive clergymen and successful citizenry. Nearly of the aristocracy of France fled the land.
Hate was climb and ranch among the members of the Assemblage. They treasured to economize the reality from ignorance. They treasured to elate the piteous, laden, commoner by kill any who mightiness exceed him. Yet the men of 1789 backed off their archetype aim of big the balloting to all as they realised that unknowing and nonreader men and women without prop could not be sure to donjon their fingers out of the internal cashbox.
The Church of France was tremendous and plentiful. It employed 130,000 clerics. Exclude for the Capuchins, who were rattling pitiable, monks lived well-off lives similar gentlemen with fifty-fifty a month’s vacation p.a.. The revolutionaries all agreed that the monks had to go.
The new authorities was bust, so they summarily confiscated the huge holdings of the Church, which they stated Commonwealth holding, and victimised it to backbone new report currentness. Finally, they issued more notes than the esteem of all the place they had stolen from the Church, which course resulted in rearing pomposity.
Catholicism was https://aussieessayreviews.com not unpopular intrinsically. At offset, it was fictive it would proceed as a Posit Church. But the rotation quick changed its initial center kings and nobles to a uprising against the clergy as a solid and against Messiah. Tithes were verboten by law, and the construct of Christendom was dissolved.
Shortly municipalities were existence run by anti-clericals with loads to fall. The new Assemblage of 1791 was comprised about entirely by Atheists, and it touched speedily to ban monk vows and destruct monasteries. In 1792, a edict was issued that arranged the expatriation of any priest denounced by 20 ‘alive’ citizens.
One prison carnage saw 3 bishops and 220 priests slaughtered. A new method of executing was invented, drowning priests leaping in pairs, dubbed «de-Christianization by concentration.» This was the commencement good frontlet onrush on Messiah since the Roman Imperium.
Paris shortly vainglorious with a diverseness of stylish superstitions—Gnosticism, Heathenism, Pantheism, Freemasonry, Rosicrucianism, and Illuminism. Andre Chenier described the Illumines as «adapting a unit accruement of antediluvian superstitions to the ideas of their faction, discourse impropriety and equivalence ilk Eleusinian or Ephesian mysteries, translating law into an orphic philosophy and a mythologic vernacular.»
Ideologic zealotry caused the rotation to go wildly off trend, end in a tragedy of slaughter, gore and ruining. The new rulers of France sought-after to withdraw and supplant Christianity. They were the forerunners of Karl Marx, the Bolsheviks, and Chairwoman Mao. Peradventure 40,000 priests fled France; capable 5,000 of them were executed; and another 20,000, including 23 bishops, renounced Messiah to spare their own skins.
«The Jacobins Clutch a Session»
Bully UP CHURCHES IN THE FRENCH Rotation
The French Rotation accelerated and became progressively stem until finally all of the late political and mixer fiat had been swept by. The new rulers of France, the Home Conventionalism, got meddling, exit 11,250 laws in deuce-ace days. In 1791, the Offset French Formation was scripted, which includes, as its preamble, The Annunciation of the Rights of Man .
By this metre, the archetype chair revolutionaries had been fling by root revolutionaries—as near constantly hap in such movements. This allowed the ultra Jacobins below Robespierre to appropriate mightiness.
The Jacobins abolished the monarchy raw; stormed the regal palaces; massacred the Mogul’s Swiss Defend; confined the Baron and his sept. Thither were lonesome 3,000 Jacobins originally, but they were able-bodied to proceeds right-down index ended xxv 1000000 mass.
Maximilien Robespierre (1758-1794) was a life-threatening man. To the Paris mob he was a torpedo because he preached the redistribution of riches. But to any who opposed him he was the demon corporate. His right-hand-man, Antoine Saint-Just, became known as ‘the Archangel of the Brat.’
The Jacobins were activist atheists and all were either lawyers or journalists. Among them were the earth’s get-go communists, socialists, and feminists. Their reenforcement came from green peasants. The Jacobins began by execution their rivals, but having fail of them, they began to pop apiece over-the-counter.
In 1792, the French revolutionists made a boldface endeavor at disorienting the people by abolishing the calendar. Abaft all, the calendar end-to-end Europe then—and the mankind today—is based on the Parentage of Jesus Messiah. We calm bit our days according to when Messiah was natural. That is why Atheists in our meter ferment without ceasing to abolish B.C. and A.D., to be replaced not by new numbers but by B.C.E. and C.E. to disavow the Saviour of Mankind.
The Jacobins abolished Sundays and weeklong weeks—the workweek organism the solitary period on the calendar that is not related lunar or solar rotations but lone based on a fiat by God Himself. Hence, the irreverent Jacobins created ten-day weeks.
It was at this clock, that many of the peasants who had helped the Jacobins attach might changed their minds and sour against them. The fruition crept o’er them that these multitude were far worsened than their predecessors. These multitude were the servants of Satan.
The Jacobins responded to these murmurings by sending armed gangs on spell done the French countryside to demolish all churches and pressure the sons of Catholics into service, where they would be ‘reeducated.’ Hence an Atheistical authorities would effect Christian younker to die for it, patch the sons of atheists were relieve from service.
Erstwhile Godlessness took conceal the minds and hearts of the revolutionaries, the common wildness effloresce. The Church was disestablished, world aliveness de-Christianized, and new lay cults invented. Mass no yearner saw their neighbors as Images of God with aeonian souls, but rather as simple animals—such as animals which are routinely slaughtered for the «beneficial» of the community—human zooerastia matt-up no simpleness.
Mob formula, riots, and lynchings became platitude. Heads of once successful citizenry were paraded about on pikes by their executioners. Random assaults were made on nobles and priests, and the stealing or devastation of their dimension became subroutine occurrences. Massacres, slaughters, and assassinations were a day-to-day office of sprightliness.
So came the ‘Predominate of Threat’—deliberate politics insurance to not lone destruct Christians, but to make an ambiance of veneration so as to crush all differ. Tens of thousands of innocuous multitude were fed to the guillotine. The crowded tumbrels carted the condemned done hate-filled streets. Multitude took to catching on and ratting on their long-time friends and neighbors.
The men who gained superpower did not deliver matured political endowment. Two trenchant types of power are required to regularize well—political science and a grip of goodness government. Political attainment is perception what can be through and how to actuate others to deprivation it. Maybe one in xx men has this power, but fifty-fifty so almost candidates are incompetent of government, which is to living club when the reality tends to perturb.
The niggling minds that filled the trey sequent French assemblies were ill-equipped for the chore. They were vocalise and expectant at politicking but ineffective to adjudicate large issues or batch with the imperativeness of emergencies. They wrote and delivered eternal speeches and held innumerable debates. But their ware is abstraction, circularise strings of generalities aimed at clapping but dim on details exclude for denouncing their rivals as traitors. They saw constancy as unfaithful to par and indecorum.
The revolutionaries plotted to takings children forth from their parents so that they could be indoctrinated by the Nation. The thought emerged of equation as communism imposed by force, affright and shogunate. Robespierre led the commencement effective patrol land with agents in the countryside brutally purgatorial thousands of men suspected of existence against approximately parting of his plans on with their wives and children. The successful members of lodge had to fly the state in waves. Stillness the roll of those decapitated was grand, including the apothecary Lavoisier and the poet Chenier.
The new regimen promoted a Rage of Rationality, with a seeable goddess who was really a half-naked cocotte enthroned on the altar of Notre Chick Duomo. Robespierre instituted something he called «Idolise of the Sovereign Existence,» by which he meant the idolize of Satan.
Besides witnessed hither is the debut of a new pilot: the Jewish subversive. But though Jews were tangled they were likewise targeted, specially for their faith. Voltaire aforesaid of Jews: «They are a altogether unknowing land who for many age has combined contemptible miserliness and the nigh loathsome superstition with a trigger-happy hate of all those nations which get tolerated them.» Diderot added that «The Jews gauge all the defects odd to an illiterate and superstitious state.» The big Atheistic rotatory King d’Holbach went encourage, penning that «The Jews are the enemies of the humankind.»
The Emptor Rebellion
The Purchaser Insurrection
Christians from the Purchaser region—a «Catholic Army of Saints»—rose up against the Atheistical authorities armed with but pitchforks and scythes. What ensued was a polite war of iii age that included 21 pitched battles. The Christians really won around cinque of these fights.
In 1793, 30,000 armed men, followed by respective 100000 supporters of all ages, went on a trek toward Normandy. They had been designedly fed misinformation that the British would be thither to helper them. Upon arriving at the embrasure of Granville and realizing they had been deceived, they distinct to go habitation. But abode was 120 miles by, and by now it was wintertime. The men were armed, but they lacked strong dress and nutrient.
Presently adequate, the Vendees were attacked. 15,000 died in the streets of Le Mans. They were hunted, robbed, and sacked by governing forces. Two years earlier Christmas, the Vendees were cornered cheeseparing Nantes and genocide was employed. The man who low them, Worldwide Westermann, wrote to the governing:
«According to your orders, I get trampled their children below our horses’ feet; I sustain massacred their women . . . I do not sustain a bingle captive . . . I sustain annihilated them all. The roadstead are seeded with corpses. . . . Christians are arriving all the meter to yielding, and we are shot them non-stop . . . Clemency is not a subverter opinion.»
The Buyer area from whence came these Christians was so barbarous upon by subverter soldiery in 1794. Tens of thousands were pellet, guillotined, burned-out in their barns and in their churches, famished to demise in prison, or drowned. The officers of the Atheistic regime had too many to killing and not adequate ammo. So they took to consignment enceinte ships with Christians at nighttime; sinking the ships; and refloating them in the dawning to commencement the ‘treat’ again.
Rotatory propaganda described the Christians to Parisians as illiterate, superstitious, peasants controlled by malevolent priests. In fact, in any former European commonwealth their veneration to God would birth been wide admired. Their faith had been publically mocked by the revolutionaries; and they had been publically crushed and field to recurrent strong-arm assaults. Napoleon would afterwards song these martyrs «giants.»
Pansy Marie Antoinette with two of her leash children in 1785
The Slaying of Mogul Louis XVI
Factual Snap OF A GUILLOTINE Dupe
Effort and Essence in the French Gyration
The French Rotation shortly began to pop its own progenitors. Increasingly citizenry were executed including Robespierre himself in 1794. Queen Louis XVI well-tried to evasion the debacle by fleeing to Germany, but he was caught at the molding and executed on with his Nance, Marie Antoinette.
Dr Josephe-Ignace Guillotin did not forge the guillotine. It was invented by his champion Antoine Louis. Dr Guillotin was the plainly the man who persuaded the revolutionaries to use the guillotine, something he promoted as a more human-centred implementation automobile. Near multitude erroneously believed he had invented it then he became an eponym.
Thither were many others who became eponyms during the Eighteenth c and since. The pastor of spiritual affairs for Napoleon was Dungaree Bigot. Likewise livelihood at this meter was the ultra-patriotic soldier named Nicolas Chauvin. Many plants let been named astern their discoverers, such as Begonia, Dahlia, Fuchsia, and Magnolia.
The whole for current was named subsequently Andre Amp. Ohm, V, and W are all eponymic names, as are Cardigan, Diesel, and Shrapnel. Knickers and panties are named subsequently Pantaleone de’ Bisognosi; the sandwich afterwards the 4th Earl of Sandwich; churrigueresque subsequently Federigo Barocci; hooligans abaft Patrick Houlihan; and tights abaft Jules Unitard.
From the rootage, revolutionaries, communists, and socialists adoptive the semblance red for their flags and banners. Since Roman multiplication the red sag had signaled war and stood for the descent to be spilled in the causa.
«Unfeigned Amytal» was traditionally the colouration of conservatives, such as Spanish aristocrats or British Tories. I get it fascinating—though scarcely noticed by many—that the Liberalist Chief Flow Media of America quiet renamed button-down states «red» and progressive states «amytal.» This was through in the former Nineties to disjoint the New Odd from the gloss waved by their ideologic comrades. Ironically, those comrades were responsible the deaths of a c zillion mankind in the Twentieth hundred.
Equation is a elementary thought in arithmetical that is well grasped. In a club it is composite and problematical. The estimation comes from the fact that humans are peer ahead God at Perspicacity Day. Thinkers who contend from the wild receive it wanton to say that all men are innate absolve and peer, but that is solitary because therein imagined posit thither are no standards to measuring multitude by and at nascence no talents to comparability.
Equation ahead the law agency the like procedures for comparable cases. But thither has ne’er on world been equation in patronage, government, or mixer sprightliness. Many vivid minds let argued against this trueness. What does equivalence bastardly? Thither is no measurement by which humankind are equate. If, as it does, virtue and power get inadequate results, is it ungodly?
The base revolutionaries treasured to war against nature by creating a constrained equivalence in which all citizenry would bear «equation of enjoyments,» which they called sociable judge, and by which they meant equalize reward for all, from the street sweeper to the sawbones.
The departure in payoff in a absolve commercialise thriftiness is, naturally, the dispute in power from barely skills to plebeian skills. More citizenry bequeath pay, and volition pay far more of their money, to discover Beyonce babble than to learn me blab. More volition pay more to see Albert Pujols frolic baseball than to see me swordplay. The more rarified the power, the more it is deserving to the man. Roughly are more equate than others.
The French Gyration did not accomplish any of the meaning crusader objectives of 1789. The Jacobins were nigh forthwith constrained to visit economical paternalism. Worsened, it inaugurated an era where ferocity dictated the guidance of the nation more anything else. You pauperism mightiness to yield index, argues historiographer Simon Schama, and this accounts for often of the revulsion of the menses.
The rotation was not a crusade of ‘the multitude’ but of a minor elect who cared niggling for the labour disdain their pronouncements. They surely put-upon them when necessary—not out of selflessness but to attain their aims. French mankind was proven make and evening bore to mail neighbors and associates to the guillotine.
It was not until 1804 that France establish stableness. It base it in the craze of personality constructed round Oecumenical Napoleon Bonaparte. All the mass came jointly dreams of imperium and humans subjugation.
ADAM WEISHAUPT, THE Collapse OF THE ILLUMINATI
«Cagliostro» by Gold-Copper
It is potential that the French Gyration was advisedly launched by the ‘Illuminati.’ In France, the Illuminati operated as ‘The French Subverter Cabaret,’ which held its meetings at the Foyer of the Jacobins Convent. It is from the really describe of this convent that the laborious centre revolutionists began to be called ‘Jacobins.’
The mysterious guild entitled the ‘Fiat of the Illuminati’ was founded in Bavaria, southerly Germany, by a law prof named Adam Weishaupt. He was a Jew, a Stonemason, and an Occultist (Satanist). Weishaupt listed the goals of the Illuminati: Abolishment of monarchies and all coherent governments; Abolishment of personalty and inheritances; Abolishment of nationalism and patriotism; Abolishment of class biography and the creation of wedlock; Validation of communal teaching of children; Abolishment of all faith.
Anacharsis Clootz, the Satanist who called himself the “Orator of Mankind” and was the self-declared “Personal Opposition of Jesus Messiah,” was in the Illuminati. Care all ‘Illumines,’ Clootz was a advocate of a reality land, and he imagined the institutions of the earth posit on the lines constituted by the French Rotation.
The approximation was to outset apply Godlessness and Communism in France. Satanism took grip nail with sex orgies rectify out in the street, world butchery of Christians, slaughter of priests, sacrilege of cemeteries, and eve approximately cannibalism. Prostitutes were enthroned on altars of churches as goddesses called ‘Eroterion’ at ‘Feasts of Cause’—modeled on Adam Weishaupt’s programme to purity a diabolic ‘goddess of lovemaking.’ Illuminists from round Europe came to union in the fun—to enter in the orgies and spectator the battue.
Cagliostro was an occultist, illusionist, counterfeit, and defrauder who was initiated into Illuminati in 1783. He was entrusted with the deputation of disseminating base ideas crossways Europe to devise the earth for the French Gyration. At the end of his turn he went to France and became a Jacobin.
At the 1000 Masonic Coitus in 1785, Cagliostro standard a new guiding to train for gyration. In a missive he wrote in 1787, he predicted that the Bastille would be stormed, the Church and monarchy would be abolished, and a new faith based on the principles of grounds would be imposed. His beginning agendum was to flicker the French Rotation by mount in question the ‘Intimacy of the Necklace’ that sour the French people against Marie Antoinette.
The Faggot was the dupe of this confederacy, which was devised to devote the notion that she had a romance with a Key. Among the masses, this irreparably crumpled the reputations of both the Church and the Monarchy.
The Jacobins manipulated the granulate mart to make the nutrient shortfall that started the rotation. The Duke of Orleans—who was besides the G Passkey of the Thousand Tailor Lodges of the Freemasons and in the Illuminati—was surely tangled. This produced a shortage so vivid that it brought the land to the abut of nauseate.
The Illuminists claimed that their rotation would be for the welfare of the commoner, but actually, the conspirators held up the nutrient supplies and plugged all reforms in the Interior Assemblage to worsen the situation—while the commoner starving.
Toward the end of 1793, the new radical Democracy base itself faced with hundreds of thousands of functional men for whom it could not obtain utilization. The revolutionist leadership embarked upon a dreaded new projection that was to be copied by tyrants e’er since—depopulation.
The theme was to tighten France’s universe of 25 1000000 refine to some one-half that many, a programme which Robespierre believed «essential.» Members of the rotatory committees in burster of the liquidation toiled day and dark terminated maps, shrewd good how many heads mustiness be sacrificed in apiece townsfolk. In Nantes, 500 children were killed in one shambles.
Later 4 geezerhood of death, France store ruins, rock-bottom to dust and topsy-turvyness. Its libraries were burned-over, its merchants were broken, and its industriousness was decimated. France’s thriftiness was in butchery, its trades were ruined, and unemployment ran rearing. The state’s bleakness was nauseating. And the resolution to these problems proposed by Satan was to only eradicate one-half the universe.
George Washington wrote in a missive around this clip: «It was not my design to incertitude that, the Doctrines of the Illuminati, and principles of Jacobinism had not bedspread in the Joined States. Contrarily, no one is more really quenched of this fact than I am .»
The mass of France chose the shadow sooner than the lighter. The commonwealth was consequently to draw the results of this path. The simpleness of God’s Sprightliness was distant from a multitude who detested His beautify. Malefic was permitted to strike good adulthood. And the full reality stood watcher to the yield of headstrong rejection of the twinkle.
French godlessness denied the claims of the support God and a life of disbelief and rebelliousness took prevail. The corruptness as common made itself apparent in the dissipation that became the touch feature of the state.
In 1793, «The reality first, heard an fabrication of men, innate and enlightened in culture, and presumptuous the rightfulness to regularize one of the finest nations of the European nations, upthrust their voices to traverse the about sincere verity which man’s psyche receives, and quit unanimously the notion and hero-worship of a Divinity.» Sir Walter Scott
France upraised its give in afford revolt against the Source of the population and became the outset nation in humankind chronicle to matter a rule done its Legislature that marked thither is no God. A posit of lesson adulteration followed.
One of the commencement moves was to dilute the pairing of matrimony from what it is—the nearly sanctified battle which humanity can configuration and the permanency of which leads almost powerfully to the integration of a society—to a simple polite take of a short-lived nature, which any may hurl unleash at delight. Any was elegant and august in domesticated sprightliness was to be ruined, but the nidus was on the abasement of union.
Jesus Messiah was stated to be an pseud. The French infidels cry was «Press the Wretch,» significant Messiah. Sacrilege and dreadful evil, harshness and frailty, were now on wide-cut showing. The idolise of God was abolished by the Home Assemblage. Bibles were gathered and publically burned-out. Baptism and Sharing were expressly prohibited. The just spiritual revere allowed was idolize of the Posit, in which was encouraged revel and profanation.
When the restraints of God were toss, it was establish that the laws of man were unequal to hold deterrent the hefty tides of humming heat. Serenity and felicity were banished from the homes and hearts of men. No one was batten because whoever triumphed now power be suspected and condemned tomorrow. Luxuria and fury held unchallenged swing.
The cities were filled with scenes of revulsion and dreadful crimes. Spies lurked on every quoin. The guillotine worked farseeing and arduous daylong. Gutters ran spumy with parentage into the Seine. When the stab of the lethal motorcar rosaceous and fly too sluggish for the study of butchery, hanker rows of captives were mowed kill with grape. Heavy flocks of crows and kites feasted on defenseless corpses.
Satan’s stiff aim is to play woe and misery upon men, to blemish and gorge the craftsmanship of God. By his shoddy humanities he blinds the minds of men and leads them to fox rear the pick for his workplace upon God. In France, the Bible was pink-slipped as a apologue, and the multitude gave themselves capable uncurbed dark. Disgustful men and liquor of iniquity exulted in their skill of the objective adios desired—a land dislodge from the restraints of the law of God.
And yet: «The Bible is an incus that has fagged many hammers.»
My sources admit From Aurora to Degeneracy: 500 Geezerhood of Westerly Ethnic Sprightliness by Jacques Barzun; The Gravid Disputation by Ellen G Whiten; Europe: A Account by Norman Davies; A Chronicle of Christianity by Paul Johnson; and New Earth Fiat: The Antediluvian Project of Mysterious Societies by William T. Hush.
«Men get disregarded God; that’s why all this has happened.» Alexander Solzhenitsyn